Sunday, March 19, 2006

 

Transformational Leaders

Info 640
In order for a manager to be effective they must first be a good role model and fill the role as a workplace leader, and show leadership. Managers tend to mistake being a manager for being the leader. "Truly transformational leaders, who are seeking the greatest good for the greatest number without violating individual rights, and are concerned about doing what is right and honest are likely to avoid stretching the truth or going beyond the evidence for they want to set an example to followers about the value of valid and accurate communication in maintaining the mutual trust of the leaders and their followers" (Bass, 1998A, p.174).
Leadership is a process where one individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. A Manager must influence their employees in a positive way in order for the organization’s goals to be achieved Peter Northouse (2001).
James McGregor Burns first developed the idea of transformational leadership in 1978, his idea was extended by Bernard Bass and then several others. Both Burns and Bass based their ideas and work, with political leaders and business executives rather than a school. Nancy Hoover, (1991) Kenneth Leithwood and Doris Jantzi (1990) all believe that there were similarities in transformational leadership whether it is a school or business.
When Burns developed his theory for transformational leaders, he didn’t develop a clear concept for the theory. Others like Bernard Bass, James Kouzes, Barry Posner, and Marshall Sashkin created ways to explain transformational leadership and how to measure its outcomes. Sashkin created the first drafts of a Leader Behavior Questionnaire, while Bass, Kouzes and Posner worked on the transformational leadership model. Sashkin (LBQ) developed five behavior categories; which involved focusing the attention of others on key ideas, developing active listening and giving and receiving feedback effectively. Trust is the third category. Without trust a follower will not follow or learn. The fourth behavior is demonstrating respect and concern for people. This behavior is not just completing assigned tasks, but also things like remembering birthdays, learning and using co-workers and client’s names, creating opportunities, giving followers the opportunities to accept challenges and control new projects.
There are four components of authentic transformational leadership, the first being an idealized influence where managers are role models for their associates. The managers are trusted and respected to make the right decisions for the association. Inspirational motivation is a manager who can get their employees to commit to the vision of the organization. Intellectual stimulation describes a manager who encourages their employees to be creative and use innovation to complete the task. Individualized consideration is when a manager acts like a coach to get their employees to reach the goals of the organization. These are often referred to as the [four I’s]. Effective transformational leadership results in performances that exceed organizational expectations. " (Northouse, 2001).
The transformational theory has its critics. Some experts believe that it is not a true theory at all. The transformational theory has been sharply questioned especially by libertarians, who believe that for management to be transformational it must first be grounded in a moral foundation. According to Rost, the transformational theory is lacking the full role of the follower. Rost believes that the follower must be an active part of the organization and not just a follower.
Transformational leadership tends to "lend itself to amoral puffery since it makes use of impression management" Snyder (1987). According to McKendall (1993) "it is antithetical to organizational learning and development involving shared leadership, equality, consensus and participative decision-making." Transformational leadership "encourages followers to go beyond their own self-interests for the good of the organization and even emotionally engages followers irrationally in pursuits of evil ends contrary to the follower’s" (Stevens, D’Intino, & Victor (1995). White and Wooten (1986) Transformational leadership "manipulates followers along a primrose path on which they lose more than they gain." Keeley (1995) says that transformational leadership lacks the checks and balances of countervailing interests, influences and power to avoid dictatorship and oppression for minority by a majority.
When James McGregor Burns first developed the idea of transformational leadership there were several assumptions, the first being that people will follow a person who inspires them, a person with vision and passion can achieve great things, and the way to get things accomplished is by injecting enthusiasm and energy. Transformational leaders can be wonderful to work with. Passion and energy is put into everything they do. They want their followers to succeed and they care about their followers. The first step for the transformational leader is to develop a vision of how the organization will function and then never stop selling their vision to their followers. Taking every opportunity to convince others to climb on board and reach the goals of the organization is the primary goal of a transformational leader. "When the organization does not need transforming and people are happy as they are, then such a leader will be frustrated. Like wartime leaders, however, given the right situation they come into their own and can be personally responsible for saving entire companies." (Bass, 1990).
In order for transformational leadership to work, contributions must come from both the leaders and the followers. Transformational leaders cannot transform an organization over night. They must first have a clear understanding of what the organization needs, wants, and what the outcomes should, and need to be. Then the transformational leader determines and designs outcomes that will benefit the organization. Even if the transformational leader has the perfect design for the organization, if the prospected followers do not have the cognitive skills to follow, then the transformational leader will fail.
Transformational leaders have the ability to get people to want to change, improve, and to be led. Northouse, states that "transformational leaders could make the company more successful by valuing its associates." Also, if the followers and the transformational leaders do not have the support and have the same cognitive thinking as the top-level mangers the long-range plan may not be met, and the organization will fail. (Northouse, 2001)
The transformational leader must always assure that the task given to the follower is set up in a way that the follower can be successful. In the right environment transformational leadership can work. However, transformational leadership need several things, first being the right leader, and the right situation. The transformational leaders must have a clear vision of what the organization needs and wants, and have the ability to show and explain the vision to the followers. A good leader must have the capability of giving their followers an opportunity to achieve their fullest potential in the organization. Transformational leaders who are charismatic and visionaries can inspire followers to gain self confidence to try tasks that they have a self interest in and that would benefit the organization.
Transformational leaders have the ability to get the follower to use their common sense to think about a problem and problem solve through it, before giving up and asking for help. Instilling confidence in their followers by using charisma builds a special bond with the follower, and thus the follower is willing to work at their best.
Transformational Leaders are visionaries. They inspire their follower to do their best and set them up with assignments to succeed. Transformational leaders have high ideals and set goals that are meant for the business to succeed. Their followers see transformational leaders as having high-integrity. A transformational leader would have the forethought to train an employee how to do a simple task such as ILL’s, so, that when the ILL person is out or on vacation, materials will still move on their way.
Some of the transformational leadership ideas to assist the director with their leadership abilities could be to:
*Involve not only the department heads on library goals, but also the non-supervising departmental staff.
*To give everyone responsibilities and involve staff in library policy function and development.
*To find out when staff members have done something special and recognize their work.
*Ask staff what they need, and want, to make their workday less stressful.
The rational for transformational leadership has several parts to consider:
Creating a Shared Vision. In which the leader creates a picture of the organization’s potential future, and shares it with the followers. The leader then encourages them to a vision of their own.
Communication of the Vision in order for the vision to be effective, the vision must be understood and continually articulated. The vision must be continually remembered and examined.
Building Relationships. By being approachable, friendly and informal. The transformational leader must be approachable, friendly, and informal. They must be active mentors, teachers, and coaches. Promote professional development and learning opportunities, and recognized employees by formal and informal reward and praises.
Developing a Supporting Organizational Culture. The transformational leader must treat all of the people in the organization with respect. People throughout the organization come from different types of diversity and backgrounds, and care should be taken to treat all with respect and dignity.
Guiding Implementation. Through strategic planning, team building, and setting high expectations.
Exhibiting Character. Transformational leaders show self-confidence, passion, and a commitment to the goals and vision of the organization.
Achieving Results. Transformational leaders are successful in achieving the shared vision; those followers who share the vision have a high level of accomplishment and satisfaction.
Transformational leaders can fall into a trap, in which their passion and confidence is mistaken for truth and reality. Also transformational leaders tend to be able to see the finishing goals of a project, but may fail to see the different levels of the project. For example, if the goal is to move all the videos to one floor and the space is available, they may instruct a staff member to move the videos, without thinking the project through. The catalog call number may have needed to be changed, or there could have been a more important part of the collection that should have occupied the new space.
A leader needs to work on the transformational style of leadership; it is a process that needs to be learned. The leader must understand the basics of transformational leadership and also bring the four I’s into their leadership approach. According to Northouse (2001) there are several qualities that a leader has to have, such as the ability to empower followers to do what is best for the organization. They have to be strong role models, who have the ability to listen to viewpoints of others, and create a vision for the employees of the organization.
One of the benefits of being a transformational leader is that the leader stimulates the follower intellectually, encouraging them to develop new ways to think through problems. This can be a great asset for the library field worker. When a patron asks a question is not easy to answer, the follower trained by the leader will have the skills needed to think it through. They will know which reference books to look in first, they look in a database, or can the answers be found with in the libraries general collection? The confidence that the follower gains from the transformational leader will prove valuable to the library.
One important aspect of a transformational leader is that the leader has the ability not only to think up a vision of what the organization should accomplish, but also be able to explain the vision and bring it to life for others. It is not predicting the future; it is creating the future that is predicted. An example of this would be building a collection of Bilingual materials in the children’s department for the purpose of increasing circulation numbers. Simply adding the materials will not increase the numbers of circulation in the department. Advertising, bookshelf displays, and staff suggestions to patrons will increase the circulation numbers. It is up to the transformational leader to convince their staff that these materials are needed, and are an important, a great resource for the patron.
From a children’s librarian perspective the transformational leadership theory would be very useful for someone who used teens as volunteers in their department. Teaching the teen volunteer simple tasks and then building on the skills to gain new skills, will give the teen volunteer confidence and a desire to do more and make the children’s librarian proud of them.

Sources:
Bass, B. M. (1998A). The ethics of transformational leadership. In Ciulia, J (Ed.)
Ethics, the heart of leadership. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Bass, B. M. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, (Winter): 19-31.

Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper Colophon Books.

Hoover, Nancy R., and others. (1991). "Transformational and Transactional
Leadership: An Empirical Test of a Theory." Paper presented at annual
meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, Illinois,
April 1991). 36 pages. ED 331 117.

Keeley, M. ( 1995). The trouble with transformational leadership: Toward a federalist ethic for organizations. Business Ethics Quarterly, 5, 67-95.

Kouzes, J.M. & Posner, B.Z. (1993). Credibility: How leaders gain and lose it and why people demand it. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Leithwood, K. (1994). Leadership for school restructuring. Educational
Administration Quarterly, 30 (4), 498-518.

Leithwood, Kenneth, and Doris Jantzi. (1990). "Transformational Leadership: How Principals Can Help School Cultures." Paper presented at annual meeting of the Canadian Association for Curriculum Studies (Victoria, British Columbia, June 1990). 49 pages. ED 323 622.

McKendall, M. (1993) The tyranny of change: Organizational development revisited. Journal of Business Ethics, 12, 93-104.

Northouse, Peter G. (2001). Leadership Theory and Practice, second edition.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Rost, J.C. (1991). Leadership for the 21st century. New York: Praeger.

Snyder, M. (1987). Public appearances, private realities: The psychology of self-
monitoring. New York, NY: W. H. Freeman & Co.

Stevens, C.U., D’Intino, R.S. & Victor, B.(1995). The moral quandary of
transformational leadership: Change for whom? Research in Organizational
Change and Development, 8, 123-143.

 

Professional Association

The Role of the Librarian as a professional
According to the American Library Association In our profession, "We distinguish between our personal convictions and professional duties and do not allow our personal beliefs to interfere with fair representation of the aims of our institutions or the provision of access to their information resources."
(http://www.ala.org/ala/oif/statementspols/codeofethics/codeethics.htm). Most codes are written in a way that they are general about the ethics inn libraries and library service. One of the things that has changed library service and library function is the Internet. We use it to link our library collections, find out information about patrons whom might not bring materials back; we can use it to find information both on the open Internet and on our online databases. It is hard to remember when libraries didn’t have the Internet. But as with the addition of new materials the Internet needs to be evaluated. If libraries believe that all materials should be free and equal access to all, should the Internet be included in this?
There are five key themes in information ethics: community, ownership, access, privacy and security. (Elrod and Smith, 2005 p.1006) As a profession we work in the best interest of the community, whether that be the community of the town and city citizens, or the students and professors from a college. We are in-trusted with the fact that we will give open and free access, keep our patrons information private, and have a clear understanding of ownership and security.
Role of the Library Associations
Library associations have different roles, depending on the association. The ALA is the national association, which writes policies for libraries as a whole. While Public Library Association (PLA) would work on policy and programs from the public library stand point. Each state also has their own association Massachusetts Library Association (MLA) works on issues that effect libraries in Massachusetts these can be public, special, or academic.
Most of the association hold conferences, scholarships, employment placement assistance, have information about grants, and general news about library happenings. Last spring I attended the MLA conference and while there attended the annual auction. The president of the ALA was the auctioneer, when the MLA fell short of its fundraising goals he auctioned is ALA Presidents pin off, and I was lucky enough to have the winning bid. Of course there were many other important things to learn about at the conference, like children’s programs, storytelling ideas, E-Bay working to make the library money, and the exhibits. In the reading Tavani mentions that the "ethical code of conduct can never substitute for careful moral deliberation." (Tavani, 2004 p.604) The professional organization whether it is public library or academic is suppose to use these codes as a guide and blend them together with the conditions and the community opinion that govern the library.
Elrod, E. & Smith, M. (2005). Information Ethics. In Encyclopedia of Science,
Technology, and Ethics, Ed. Carl Mitcham. Vol. 2: D-K (1004-1011).
Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. Retrieved February 18, 2006, PDF
Page Gale Virtual Reference Library via Thomson Gale.
Spinello, R. & Tavani, H. (eds.) (2004). Readings in cyberethics. 2nd ed.
Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Pub., Inc.
Tavani, H. (2004). Ethics technology: Ethical issues in an age of information
and communication technology. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Monday, February 13, 2006

 

Technology and Information Ethics
for
Teens and Teachers

Scope

This E-Pathfinder offers information on the ethics of information through technology. Several of the subjects covered are computer ethics, ethical conduct, privacy, and copyright laws, evaluating sources on the Internet. Teens and their teachers can find helpful information on Internet safety, privacy and evaluation of materials on the Internet.

Target Audience

Middle and high school students and teachers. The purpose of this E-Pathfinder is to offer assistance with using the Internet and computer resources ethically and responsibly.

Subject Headings
Information,
Privacy,
Ethics,
Technology,
Cyberspace,
Internet,
Information ethics,
Ethical questions,


Selected Books

"Teaching Students the Ethical Use of Information and Communication Technologies: A New Role for School Librarians," in Daniel Callison, ed., Papers of the Treasure Mountain Research Retreat #10 at the Elms, June 2002, San Jose, Calif.: Hi Willow Research, 117-133.

"Teaching Students the Ethical Use of Information and Communication Technologies: A New Role for School Librarians," in Mary Ann Fitzgerald, Michael Orey, and Robert Branch, eds., Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, Volume 29. Englewood, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 2004, 178-189.Weckert, John.

Computer and information ethics / John Weckert and Douglas Adeney. Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 1997Computers and ethics in the cyberage / [edited by] D. Micah Hester, Paul J. Ford. Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Prentice Hall, c2001.Kizza, Joseph Migga.

Ethical and Social issues in the information age / Joseph Migga Kizza. New York : Springer, c2003.Information ethics : privacy and intellectual property / Lee Freeman, A. Graham Peace, editors. Imprint Hershey, PA : Idea Group Publishing, c2005.

Ethics and electronic information: a Festschrift for Stephen Almagno / edited by Barabara Rockenbach and Tom Mendina. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., c2003.

Selected Electronic Books

Information ethics [electronic resource] : privacy and intellectual property / Lee Freeman, A. Graham Peace, editors. Hershey, PA : Idea Group Publishing, c2005.

Dillner, M. (2000, January). Internet safety and ethics for the classroom. Reading Online. http://www.readingonline.org/editorial/edit_index.asp?HREF=/editorial/ethics.html

Selected Internet Resources

CyberCitizen Includes sections for parents, teens, kids and schools. family.com family2.go.com ... To provide information on Information Systems Ethics (Cyber ethics) Education including content, delivery, pedagogy. www.cybercitizenship.org/teaching/teachinglinks.html

Code of Ethics of the American Library AssociationALA's website for ethics. The principles of the Code are expressed in broad statements on this site to guide ethical decision making.

Computer Ethics: Basic Concepts and Historical Overview In Bynum and Rogerson (1996) Global Information Ethics, Opragen Publications, 177-90. Gotterbarn, Donald (1991) "Computer Ethics: Responsibility Regained,"http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-computer/

Information Ethics: Information Ethics: An Environmental Approach to the Digital Divide L UCIANO F LORIDI Faculty of Philosophy, Department of Computer Science.www.wolfson.ox.ac.uk/~floridi/pdf/ieeadd.pdf

Study of Ethics http://ethics.iit.edu/codes/The site of the Illinois Institute of Technology's Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions which includes over 850 codes of ethics available online. Included are codes of ethics of professional societies, corporations, government, and academic institutions. In addition, a literature review, an introduction to the codes, and a user guide are included.

http://www.cybersmartcurriculum.org/curr_over/ The CyberSmart! Curriculum is non-sequential and is easily integrated, in part or in full. Organized in five units, each teaching an important facet of Internet use, it consists of 65 original standards-based lesson plans with Activity Sheets. The number of lessons per grade increases as students' reading and critical thinking skills develop.

Resource list by Doug Johnson Resources for teaching information technology ethics to children and young adults by Doug Johnson http://www.doug-johnson.com/ethics/index.html

Information Ethics Information Ethics... Information Ethics at SIS... Ethics: A definition The art and science that seeks to bring sensitivity and method to the discernment of moral values. www.sis.pitt.edu/~ethics

Cyberethics for Kids is a site by the U.S. Department of Justice's Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section. It provides adults, children and teens information on how to use the Internet safely and responsibly. Reading Online - From the Editors: Teaching Students to Evaluate ...

Teaching Students to Evaluate Internet Information Critically Bridget Dalton Dana ... and to find information they need for school projects. Many, teens in particular ... safety and ethics for the classroom ... www.readingonline.org/editorial/december2001/index.html

Be Web Aware - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Many kids are using the Internet at school by six years of ... and how to behave ethically and responsibly while online. Your ... for young teens. If your kids are using blogging or social networking this site will assist you in explaining what is safe and how to get help. www.bewebaware.ca/english/faq.aspx

The Information Ethicist, http://infoethicist.blogspot.com/. By Dr. Martha Smith, this blog freely exchanges thoughts, events, and current issues pertaining to Information Ethics.


Monday, February 06, 2006

 

E-Pathfinder


I know I still have more to do I thought that I would find information and then write why it is important. Some of the sites I have to fix so they are usable to all users. All the sites suppose to be in alphabetical order?

E-Pathfinder: Technology and Information Ethics

Scope

This E-Pathfinder offers information on the ethics of information through technology. Just because we have the technology should we use Cyberspace as a formal way of communicating? The use of e-mails raise questions about how we treat each other and how we treat common resources. Several of the subjects covered are computer ethics, ethical conduct, privacy, copyright laws, evaluating sources on the Internet.

Target Audience

Middle school students and teachers. The purpose of this
E-Pathfinder is to offer assistance with using the Internet and computer resources ethically and responsibly.

SubjectHeadings

Selected Books

"Teaching Students the Ethical Use of Information and Communication Technologies: A New Role for School Librarians," in Daniel Callison, ed., Papers of the Treasure Mountain Research Retreat #10 at the Elms, June 2002, San Jose, Calif.: Hi Willow Research, 117-133.

"Teaching Students the Ethical Use of Information and Communication Technologies: A New Role for School Librarians," in Mary Ann Fitzgerald, Michael Orey, and Robert Branch, eds., Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, Volume 29. Englewood, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 2004, 178-189.

Weckert, John. Computer and information ethics / John Weckert and Douglas Adeney. Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 1997

Computers and ethics in the cyberage / [edited by] D. Micah Hester, Paul J. Ford. Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Prentice Hall, c2001.

Kizza, Joseph Migga. Ethical and Social issues in the information age / Joseph Migga Kizza. New York : Springer, c2003.

Information ethics : privacy and intellectual property / Lee Freeman, A. Graham Peace, editors. Imprint Hershey, PA : Idea Group Publishing, c2005.

Ethics and electronic informationn: a Festschrift for Stephen Almagno / edited by Barabara Rockenbach and Tom Mendina. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., c2003.

Selected Electronic Books

Information ethics [electronic resource] : privacy and intellectual property / Lee Freeman, A. Graham Peace, editors. Hershey, PA : Idea Group Publishing, c2005.

Selected Internet Resources
These are some of the information sites that I am exploring. I will not be using may of them they are from the same source but they give me a starting point to find information.
CyberCitizen
Includes sections for parents, teens, kids and schools. family.com family2.go.com ... To provide information on Information Systems Ethics (Cyber ethics) Education including content, delivery, pedagogy.
www.cybercitizenship.org/teaching/teachinglinks.html

Code of Ethics of the American Library AssociationALA's website for ethics. The principles of the Code are expressed in broad statements on this site to guide ethical decision making.

Computer Ethics: Basic Concepts and Historical Overview
In Bynum and Rogerson (1996) Global Information Ethics, Opragen Publications, 177-90. Gotterbarn, Donald (1991) "Computer Ethics: Responsibility Regained,"

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-computer/
Information Ethics:
Information Ethics: An Environmental Approach to the Digital Divide L UCIANO F LORIDI Faculty of Philosophy, Department of Computer Science.
www.wolfson.ox.ac.uk/~floridi/pdf/ieeadd.pdf

Study of Ethics http://ethics.iit.edu/codes/The site of the Illinois Institute of Technology's Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions which includes over 850 codes of ethics available online. Included are codes of ethics of professional societies, corporations, government, and academic institutions. In addition, a literature review, an introduction to the codes, and a user guide are included.

Access, Internet, and Public LibrariesA report prepared for the Santa Clara County Libraries on challenges posed by the availability to minors of sexually explicit material on the Internet. The report addresses issues such as filtering and free speech.Thomas Shanks and Barry Stenger

Bewitching Miss JuliaReview of "Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet" by Sherry Turkle Tim Healy

The Cyber City NetworkAn online network for city services raises questions about access and whether the provision of services electronically will increase disparities between rich and poor.Thomas Shanks

CybersmutFrom blocking software to legislation, strategies address children's access to objectionable material on the Internet. Joseph Westfall

E-mania: Ethical Approaches to E-mail OverloadE-mail behavior raises questions about how we treat each other and how we treat common resources.Miriam Schulman

Ethics@E-mailAttribution, access, and other ethical issues raised by the use of e-mail.Paul Soukup

Ethics and Technology in the Wake of September 11thCo-chair of the President's Council of Advisors in Science and Technology discusses issues raised by the terrorist attacks.E. Floyd Kvamme

FAQs: Illegal Software UseEthics and software piracy.Terry Shoup

Gated Communities In CyberspaceThe creation of defensible space holds the key to commerce on the Internet. Ellen F. Harshman, Jam

Information Ethics
Information Ethics... Information Ethics at SIS... Ethics: A definition The art and science that seeks to bring sensitivity and method to the discernment of moral values. www.sis.pitt.edu/~ethics

these are the ones that I am not using but am reading to draw more infomation from.
Internet BlockingAn analysis of technological solutions to the problem of cybersmut.Joseph Westfall

Libraries on the Information SuperhighwayThe ethical issues behind access to sexually explicit materials on the Internet. MCAE

Playing With Ethics: A Panel on Video GamesTranscript of a discussion on video games, violence, gender stereotypes, and addiction. Leland Yee, Mike Antonucci, Kristin Asleson McDonn

Privacy: Electronic Information and the IndividualThe security of personal information in the Internet age.Joseph Westfall

Teaching Ethics and Teaching Engineering-Some ParallelsThis paper looks at the problem of ethical dilemmas, teaching engineering design, and the implications which arise from the teaching of engineering and the teaching of ethics.Tim Healy

Taking Responsibility for E-WasteEnvironmental damage from computer and other electronic waste.Chad Raphael

Treatment of Emplolyees in High-Tech Start-UpsWeakness rather than evil accounts for many instances of unethical behavior.Denis J. Moberg

Unanticipated Consequences of TechnologyAn investigation of the ubiquitous phenomenon of unanticipated consequences. Concludes with ethical implications of acting when consequences will occur.Tim Healy

Monday, January 23, 2006

 

week 2

One of my first jobs (about 20 years ago) was working for a nursing agency as a staffing coordinator. I had about 3000 time slots a week to fill. Many of the slots were on going, fill the position once and the staff member kept the spot until the job ended. So, really after filling the on going slots I had about 1000 to fine personnel for. After hours if someone called out from their assignment or if a nursing home or hospital needed staff they would call my office and my answering service would beep me. I would find a phone when the beeper went off I called the service and then call the appropriate person or begin to call available staff members, sometimes going through 100’s of names. This is before the age of cell phones. So, when I was on call I had to stay home. If I had, had this job twenty years later it would have been a nice job to have, with the invention of the cell phone. I could have still had a life on the weekends.
Moral Systems and Values: war and military values. War and military values have changed greatly over the last 60 years, and I am not sure if they have changed for the good or not. Back in World War II we, (the United States )entered it officially after the attack on American soil, we had, had secret small military groups working with the British for years before Pearl. But as a country we became involved only after we were attacked. The Humanitarian in us did not get involved when we heard and read reports of what the Germany government was doing. We ignored the trains that we had knowledge of loaded with Jews, we thought it wasn’t our problem. There wasn’t anything there we wanted so why get involved.
As Russia rolled into countries, we told them to get out. But we kept our distance as a country and secretly helped the forces to try and defeat them. We didn’t help the little countries in what use to be the USSR when it broke up and they were destroying each other. For the most part most Americans didn’t care or were happy that the great super power was falling apart. We let a little known country called Iran take Americans as hostages, and the only way to free them was to give their captors arms. For the most part all of these events we stayed out of unless we our selves as the country was attacked.
But then our values of war changed, Iraq rolled into a Kuwait. And we decided to act, not because they were killing thousands of people for no reason. But, because Kuwait has oil and we need it. So, we entered Desert Storm and chased Iraq out of Kuwait, we gave the Iraqi people hope of freedom, and abandon them. We protected our oil, but once again like the very beginnings of World War II did not protect the people, with us gone he again murder thousands of his own people who wanted the freedom we had promised. But our oil was safe. When September 11th happened, it was then that we decided to act before we were acted on again, or so our government says. We changed our Morals and Values of war to act first so we are not acted upon. But the art of war also changed, instead of destroying everything and everyone in our way and pounding the enemy until he surrender. We chose targets, as if winning a war or surviving a war can be done in a nice way. We became the aggressors but not with an aggressor’s attitude.
I am not sure if our Morals and Values of war have changed for the better or not. I guess time will tell.
As to why I chose library service as a career, when I was 16 I worked in a Jewish Nursing Home, I learned so much about what we have as Americans and what the rest of the world does not. Like the ability to go to a library. One of my nursing home friends told me that when she was 9 she went to school one day, her teacher gave her a book to read and write a paper about the what the author was trying to tell people in the book. She couldn’t remember the title. The next day the Germans closed the school and the library near her house. A week or so later she and her family were taken to a camp were they remained until the Allied forces freed them 5 years later. She never saw a book, during that whole time. Then she went to Poland, and then eventually came to the United States where she was adopted. She read every day, only nice stories were no one ever died. She said that the freedom of knowledge is one of the most important things anyone could ever ask for in their life, and we don’t value it until it is gone. She then would rub her forearm where her identification number was. She must have told me the same story over and over again at least 100 times over the 3 years that I knew her. So, I guess she is why I chose to work in the informational field. I chose first to be a teacher, but I only had 22 children in my class and I wanted to reach more, to make an impact on their lives like Ida had made on mine. I think she would have been happy to know that I give children books everyday.

 

week 1

To understand ethics we must first define it. There are several questions we can ask; what do we value? What is good? How we ought to live? What makes something the right thing to do? What should our goals be? Our values in life are our goals, and actions of our goals lead to us to our values. So if one of my values in my children’s room is free and equal access to all patrons, rich or poor, male or female, disabled or able body. Then my action would be to allow anyone who wants to use the collection to use it. I think the ethical dilemma comes in when the system we use states that all patrons can take out 50 items, and we (the library staff and board) limit the number to, two items for patrons living in shelters. By doing this we are not given them free and equal access. If we did then instead of losing 2 books when they move to a different shelter or city, the library would lose many more. But, then I who tend to like to always see the other side, say… "What about the patrons who have a permanent address and don’t bring back the materials?’ Aren’t we losing just as much?" The answer at my library is, "Yes" for those of you who are wondering. For every 100 books that leave my children’s room I will not get 32 back! It’s the nature of the city that we serve.

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